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Cape Town,South Africa

Cape Town is City/Area of Western Cape, Latitude: -33.8927, Longitude: 18.5942

Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad ['k??pstat]; Xhosa: iKapa;) is the second most populous city in South Africa after Johannesburg and also the legislative capital of South Africa. Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the largest city of the Western Cape province and forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town. The other two capitals are located in Pretoria (the executive capital where the Presidency is based) and Bloemfontein (the judicial capital where the Supreme Court of Appeal is located).[9] The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population.[10] The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design.

History
Main articles: History of Cape Town and Timeline of Cape Town
History of Cape Town

Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias planting the cross at Cape Point, 1488.

Jan van Riebeeck and Dutch colonists arriving in Table Bay in 1652.

A model of Cape Town as it would have appeared in 1800.
Early history
The earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region’s first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488 who was the first European to reach the area and named it “Cape of Storms” (Cabo das Tormentas). It was later renamed by John II of Portugal as “Cape of Good Hope” (Cabo da Boa Esperança) because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In 1510, at the Battle of Salt River, Francisco de Almeida and fifty of his men were killed and his party were defeated by ox-mounted !Uri?’aekua (“Goringhaiqua” in Dutch approximate spelling), which was one of the so-called Khoekhoe clans of the area that also included the !Uri?’ae|’ona (“Goringhaicona” in Dutch approximate spelling, also known as “Strandlopers”), said to be the ancestors of the !Ora nation of today. In the late 16th century, Portuguese, French, Danish, Dutch and English but mainly Portuguese ships regularly continued to stop over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco, copper and iron with the Khoekhoe-speaking clans of the region, in exchange for fresh meat.

Dutch period

Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC).
In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the United East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the Castle of Good Hope). The settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and later governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever. Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.

British period
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France’s vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to the United Kingdom. It became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from the UK, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise.

During the 1850s and 1860s additional plant species were introduced from Australia by the British authorities. Notably rooikrans to stabilise the sand of the Cape Flats to allow for a road connecting the peninsula with the rest of the African continent and eucalyptus to drain marshes so as to help to eliminate malaria. The discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won.

South African period
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, and later of the Republic of South Africa.

In 1945 the expansion of the Cape Town foreshore adding an additional 480 acres to the city bowl area was completed.
Prior to the mid-twentieth century the Cape Town was arguably the most racially integrated city in the South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) under the slogan of “swart gevaar”. This led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape’s multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Formerly multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of residents deemed unlawful by apartheid legislation or demolished. The most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Flats. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a “Coloured labour preference area”, to the exclusion of “Bantus”, i.e. Africans. The implementation of this policy was widely opposed by trade unions, civil society and opposition parties. It is notable that this policy was not advocated for by any coloured person, and its implementation was a unilateral decision by the apartheid government.

School students from Langa, Gugulethu and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of protests against Bantu Education in Soweto in June 1976 and organised gatherings and marches, which were met with resistance from the police. A number of school buildings were burnt down.

Cape Town was home to many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement. On Robben Island, a former penitentiary island 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city, many famous political prisoners were held for years. In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made his first public speech since his imprisonment, from the balcony of Cape Town City Hall hours after being released on 11 February 1990. His speech heralded the beginning of a new era for the country, and the first democratic election, was held four years later, on 27 April 1994. Nobel Square in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront features statues of South Africa’s four Nobel Peace Prize winners: Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela.

Geography

Cape Town’s “City Bowl” viewed from Lion’s Head in May (late autumn)
Cape Town is located at latitude 33.55° S (approx. the same as Sydney and Buenos Aires and equivalent to Casablanca and Los Angeles in the northern hemisphere) and longitude 18.25° E. Table Mountain, with its near vertical cliffs and flat-topped summit over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) high, and with Devil’s Peak and Lion’s Head on either side, together form a dramatic mountainous backdrop enclosing the central area of Cape Town, the so-called City Bowl. A thin strip of cloud, known colloquially as the “tablecloth”, sometimes forms on top of the mountain. To the immediate south, the Cape Peninsula is a scenic mountainous spine jutting 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwards into the Atlantic Ocean and terminating at Cape Point. There are over 70 peaks above 300 m (980 ft) within Cape Town’s official city limits. Many of the city’s suburbs lie on the large plain called the Cape Flats, which extends over 50 kilometres (30 mi) to the east and joins the peninsula to the mainland. The Cape Town region is characterised by an extensive coastline, rugged mountain ranges, coastal plains, inland valleys and semi-desert fringes.

Robben Island
UNESCO declared Robben Island in the Western Cape a World Heritage Site in 1999. Robben Island is located in Table Bay, some 6 km (3.7 mi) west of Bloubergstrand in Cape Town, and stands some 30m above sea level. Robben Island has been used as a prison where people were isolated, banished and exiled to for nearly 400 years. It was also used as a leper colony, a post office, a grazing ground, a mental hospital, and an outpost.

Currently visitors can only access the island via the Robben Island Museum boat service, which runs three times daily until the beginning of the peak season (1 September). The ferries depart from the Nelson Mandela Gateway at the V&A Waterfront.

Climate
Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate (Köppen “Csb”), with mild, moderately wet winters and dry, warm summers. Winter, which lasts from the beginning of June to the end of August, may see large cold fronts entering for limited periods from the Atlantic Ocean with significant precipitation and strong north-westerly winds. Winter months in the city average a maximum of 18 °C (64 °F) and minimum of 8.5 °C (47 °F) Total annual rainfall in the city averages 515 millimetres (20.3 in) although in the southern suburbs, close to the mountains, rainfall is significantly higher and averages closer to 1000 millimetres (40 in). Summer, which lasts from December to March, is warm and dry with an average maximum of 26 °C (79 °F) and minimum of 16 °C (61 °F). The region can get uncomfortably hot when the Berg Wind, meaning “mountain wind”, blows from the Karoo interior for a couple of weeks in February or March. Spring and summer generally feature a strong wind from the south-east, known locally as the south-easter or the Cape Doctor, so called because it blows air pollution away. This wind is caused by a high-pressure system which sits in the South Atlantic to the west of Cape Town, known as the South Atlantic High. Cape Town receives 3,100 hours of sunshine per year.

Water temperatures range greatly, between 10 °C (50 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard, to over 22 °C (72 °F) in False Bay. Average annual Ocean temperatures are between 13 °C (55 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard (similar to Californian waters, such as San Francisco or Big Sur), and 17 °C (63 °F) in False Bay (similar to Northern Mediterranean temperatures, such as Nice or Monte Carlo).

hideClimate data for Cape Town (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.3
(102.7) 38.3
(100.9) 43.0
(109.4) 38.6
(101.5) 33.5
(92.3) 29.8
(85.6) 29.0
(84.2) 32.0
(89.6) 33.1
(91.6) 37.2
(99.0) 39.9
(103.8) 41.4
(106.5) 43.0
(109.4)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 33.6
(92.5) 34.1
(93.4) 33.2
(91.8) 31.7
(89.1) 29.1
(84.4) 26.3
(79.3) 25.1
(77.2) 26.9
(80.4) 28.3
(82.9) 31.0
(87.8) 31.6
(88.9) 32.5
(90.5) 34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0) 26.5
(79.7) 25.4
(77.7) 23.0
(73.4) 20.3
(68.5) 18.1
(64.6) 17.5
(63.5) 17.8
(64.0) 19.2
(66.6) 21.3
(70.3) 23.5
(74.3) 24.9
(76.8) 22.0
(71.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7) 20.4
(68.7) 19.2
(66.6) 16.9
(62.4) 14.4
(57.9) 12.5
(54.5) 11.9
(53.4) 12.4
(54.3) 13.7
(56.7) 15.6
(60.1) 17.9
(64.2) 19.5
(67.1) 16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3) 15.6
(60.1) 14.2
(57.6) 11.9
(53.4) 9.4
(48.9) 7.8
(46.0) 7.0
(44.6) 7.5
(45.5) 8.7
(47.7) 10.6
(51.1) 13.2
(55.8) 14.9
(58.8) 11.4
(52.5)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5) 9.9
(49.8) 7.6
(45.7) 5.7
(42.3) 2.8
(37.0) 1.3
(34.3) 1.0
(33.8) 1.3
(34.3) 2.3
(36.1) 4.4
(39.9) 7.0
(44.6) 9.5
(49.1) 1.0
(33.8)
Record low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3) 6.4
(43.5) 4.6
(40.3) 2.4
(36.3) 0.9
(33.6) -1.2
(29.8) -4.3
(24.3) -0.4
(31.3) 0.2
(32.4) 1.0
(33.8) 3.9
(39.0) 6.2
(43.2) -4.3
(24.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6) 17
(0.7) 20
(0.8) 41
(1.6) 69
(2.7) 93
(3.7) 82
(3.2) 77
(3.0) 40
(1.6) 30
(1.2) 14
(0.6) 17
(0.7) 515
(20.4)
Average precipitation days (= 0.1 mm) 5.5 4.6 4.8 8.3 11.4 13.3 11.8 13.7 10.4 8.7 4.9 6.3 103.7
Average relative humidity (%) 71 72 74 78 81 81 81 80 77 74 71 71 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 337.9 297.4 292.9 233.5 205.3 175.4 193.1 212.1 224.7 277.7 309.8 334.2 3,094
Source: World Meteorological Organization, NOAA, South African Weather Service, eNCA
Flora and fauna
Main article: Biodiversity of Cape Town

Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos growing in Table Mountain National Park.
Located in a CI Biodiversity hotspot as well as the unique Cape Floristic Region, the city of Cape Town has one of the highest levels of biodiversity of any equivalent area in the world. These protected areas are a World Heritage Site, and an estimated 2,200 species of plants are confined to Table Mountain – more than exist in the whole of the United Kingdom which has 1200 plant species and 67 endemic plant species. Many of these species, including a great many types of proteas, are endemic to the mountain and can be found nowhere else.

It is home to a total of 19 different vegetation types, of which several are endemic to the city and occur nowhere else in the world. It is also the only habitat of hundreds of endemic species, and hundreds of others which are severely restricted or threatened. This enormous species diversity is mainly because the city is uniquely located at the convergence point of several different soil types and micro-climates.[citation needed]

Table Mountain has an unusually rich biodiversity. Its vegetation consists predominantly of several different types of the unique and rich Cape Fynbos. The main vegetation type is endangered Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, but critically endangered Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Renosterveld and Afromontane forest occur in smaller portions on the mountain.

Unfortunately, rapid population growth and urban sprawl has covered much of these ecosystems with development. Consequently, Cape Town now has over 300 threatened plant species and 13 which are now extinct. The Cape Peninsula, which lies entirely within the city of Cape Town, has the highest concentration of threatened species of any continental area of equivalent size in the world. Tiny remnant populations of critically endangered or near extinct plants sometimes survive on road sides, pavements and sports fields. The remaining ecosystems are partially protected through a system of over 30 nature reserves – including the massive Table Mountain National Park.[citation needed]

Cape Town reached first place in the 2019 iNaturalist City Nature Challenge in two out of the three categories: Most Observations, and Most Species. This was the first entry by Capetonians in this annual competition to observe and record the local biodiversity over a four-day long weekend during what is considered the worst time of the year for local observations. However, a worldwide survey showed that the extinction rate of endemic plants from the City of Cape Town is one of the highest in the world, at roughly three per year since 1900 – partly a consequence of the very small and localised habitats and high endemicity.

Suburbs

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Satellite image of Cape Town and Table Mountain
Main article: List of Cape Town suburbs
Cape Town’s urban geography is influenced by the contours of Table Mountain, its surrounding peaks,[clarification needed] the Durbanville Hills, and the expansive lowland region known as the Cape Flats. These geographic features in part divide the city into several commonly known groupings of suburbs (equivalent to districts outside South Africa), many of which developed historically together and share common attributes of language and culture.

City Bowl
Main article: City Bowl

An aerial panoramic of Cape Town’s City Bowl taken from above Signal Hill looking north.
The City Bowl is a natural amphitheatre-shaped area bordered by Table Bay and defined by the mountains of Signal Hill, Lion’s Head, Table Mountain and Devil’s Peak.

The area includes the central business district of Cape Town, the harbour, the Company’s Garden, and the residential suburbs of De Waterkant, Devil’s Peak, District Six, Zonnebloem, Gardens, Bo-Kaap, Higgovale, Oranjezicht, Schotsche Kloof, Tamboerskloof, University Estate, Vredehoek, Walmer Estate and Woodstock.[citation needed]

The Foreshore Freeway Bridge has stood in its unfinished state since construction officially ended in 1977. It was intended to be the Eastern Boulevard Highway in the city bowl, but is unfinished due to budget constraints.

Atlantic Seaboard

Camps Bay viewed from Lion’s Head

Panoramic view of Hout Bay from Chapman’s Peak, with Chapman’s Peak Drive visible at the base of the mountain
The Atlantic Seaboard lies west of the City Bowl and Table Mountain, and is characterised by its beaches, cliffs, promenade and hillside communities. The area includes, from north to south, the neighbourhoods of Green Point, Mouille Point, Three Anchor Bay, Sea Point, Fresnaye, Bantry Bay, Clifton, Camps Bay, Llandudno, and Hout Bay. The Atlantic Seaboard has some of the most expensive real estate in South Africa particularly on Nettleton and Clifton Roads in Clifton, Ocean View Drive and St Leon Avenue in Bantry Bay, Theresa Avenue in Bakoven and Fishermans Bend in Llandudno. Camps Bay is home to the highest concentration of multimillionaires in Cape Town and has the highest number of high-priced mansions in South Africa with more than 155 residential units exceeding R20 million (or $US1.8 million).[when?]

West Coast
The West Coast suburbs lie along the beach to the north of the Cape Town city centre, and include Bloubergstrand, Milnerton, Tableview, West Beach, Big Bay, Sunset Beach, Sunningdale, Parklands and Parklands North, as well as the exurbs of Atlantis and Melkbosstrand. The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station is located within this area and maximum housing density regulations are enforced in much of the area surrounding the nuclear plant.

Northern Suburbs
Main article: Northern Suburbs, Cape Town

Maitland Crematorium
The Northern Suburbs are predominantly Afrikaans-speaking, and include Belhar, Bellville, Blue Downs, Bothasig, Burgundy Estate, Durbanville, Edgemead, Brackenfell, Elsie’s River, Eerste River, Kraaifontein, Goodwood, Kensington, Maitland, Monte Vista, Panorama, Parow, Richwood, Kraaifontein and Kuils River..

The Northern Suburbs are home to Tygerberg Hospital, the largest hospital in the Western Cape and second largest in South Africa

Southern Suburbs
Main article: Southern Suburbs, Cape Town
The Southern Suburbs lie along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, southeast of the city centre. This area is predominantly English-speaking, and includes, from north to south, Observatory, Mowbray, Pinelands, Rosebank, Rondebosch, Rondebosch East, Newlands, Claremont, Lansdowne, Kenilworth, Bishopscourt, Constantia, Wynberg, Plumstead, Ottery, Bergvliet and Diep River. West of Wynberg lies Constantia which, in addition to being a wealthy neighbourhood, is a notable wine-growing region within the City of Cape Town, and attracts tourists for its well-known wine farms and Cape Dutch architecture.

South Peninsula

The historical centre of Simon’s Town
The South Peninsula is generally regarded as the area South of Muizenberg on False Bay and Noordhoek on the Atlantic Ocean, all the way to Cape Point. Until recently, this predominantly English-speaking area was quite rural, however the population of the area is growing quickly as new coastal developments proliferate and larger plots are subdivided to provide more compact housing. It includes Capri Village, Clovelly, Fish Hoek, Glencairn, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Masiphumelele, Muizenberg, Noordhoek, Ocean View, Scarborough, Simon’s Town, St James, Sunnydale and Sun Valley. South Africa’s largest naval base is located at Simon’s Town harbour, and close by is Boulders Beach, the site of a large colony of African penguins.

A view over government built apartments in the Cape Flats neighborhood of Manenberg.
Cape Flats
Main article: Cape Flats
The Cape Flats is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the city centre.

Due to the region having a Mediterranean climate, the wettest months on the Cape Flats are from April to September, with 82% most of its rainfall occurring between these months. The rainfall patterns on the Cape Flats vary with longitude, such that the eastern parts get a minimum of 214mm per year and the central and western parts get 800mm per year. A significant portion of this water ends up in the Cape Flats Aquifer, which lie beneath the central and southern parts of the Cape Flats. Most of the land of the Cape Flats is used for residential areas, the majority of which are formal, but with several informal settlements present. Light industrial areas are also found in the area. A part of the land in the south-east is used for cultivation and contains many smallholdings.

Helderberg
Main article: Helderberg
The Helderberg consists of Somerset West, Strand, Gordons Bay and a few other suburbs which were previously towns in the Helderberg district. The district takes its name from the imposing Helderberg Mountain, which reaches a height of 1,137 metres (3,730 feet)[citation needed]

Government
Main article: City of Cape Town
Cape Town is governed by a 231-member city council elected in a system of mixed-member proportional representation. The city is divided into 116 wards, each of which elects a councillor by first-past-the-post voting. The remaining 115 councillors are elected from party lists so that the total number of councillors for each party is proportional to the number of votes received by that party.

In the local government elections of 3 August 2016, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won an outright majority, taking 154 of the 231 council seats. The African National Congress, the national ruling party, received 57 seats. As a result of this victory, Patricia de Lille of the Democratic Alliance was re-elected to a second term as Executive Mayor. However, De Lille resigned as Mayor on 31 October 2018. The Democratic Alliance designated Dan Plato as their candidate to replace her.

Mayor of Cape Town Dan Plato.

The Old Cape Town City Hall as seen from the Grand Parade in front of the building.

The Cape Town Civic Centre, the central offices of the City of Cape Town.

South Africa’s national parliament building is located in Cape Town.
Demographics
Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1658 360 —    
1731 3,157 +3.02%
1836 20,000 +1.77%
1875 45,000 +2.10%
1891 67,000 +2.52%
1901 171,000 +9.82%
1950 618,000 +2.66%
1955 705,000 +2.67%
1960 803,000 +2.64%
1965 945,000 +3.31%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1970 1,114,000 +3.35%
1975 1,339,000 +3.75%
1980 1,609,000 +3.74%
1985 1,933,000 +3.74%
1990 2,296,000 +3.50%
1996 2,565,018 +1.86%
2001 2,892,243 +2.43%
2007 3,497,097 +3.22%
2011 3,740,025 +1.69%
2018 3,776,000 +0.14%
Note: Census figures (1996–2011) cover figures after 1994 reflect the greater Cape Town metropolitan municipality reflecting post-1994 reforms. Sources: 1658–1904, 1950–1990, 1996, 2001, and 2011 Census; 2007, 2018 Census estimates.
According to the South African National Census of 2011, the population of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality – an area that includes suburbs and exurbs not always considered as part of Cape Town – is 3,740,026 people. This represents an annual growth rate of 2.6% compared to the results of the previous census in 2001 which found a population of 2,892,243 people. :54 The sex ratio is 96, meaning that there are slightly more women than men.:55 42.4% of the population described themselves as “Coloured”, 15.7% as “White”, 38.6% as “Black African”, 1.4% as “Indian or Asian”:56–59and 1.9% as “Other”.

In 1944, 47% of the city’s population was White, 46% was Coloured, less than 6% was Black African and 1% was Asian.

Of those residents who were asked about their first language, 35.7% spoke Afrikaans, 29.8% spoke Xhosa and 28.4% spoke English. 24.8% of the population is under the age of 15, while 5.5% is 65 or older.:64

Of those residents aged 20 or older, 1.8% have no schooling, 8.1% have some schooling but did not finish primary school, 4.6% finished primary school but have no secondary schooling, 38.9% have some secondary schooling but did not finish Grade 12, 29.9% finished Grade 12 but have no higher education, and 16.7% have higher education. Overall, 46.6% have at least a Grade 12 education.:74 Of those aged between 5 and 25, 67.8% are attending an educational institution.:78 Amongst those aged between 15 and 65 the unemployment rate is 23.7%.:79 The average annual household income is R161,762.:88

There are 1,068,573 households in the municipality, giving an average household size of 3.3 people.:80 Of those households, 78.4% are in formal structures (houses or flats), while 20.5% are in informal structures (shacks).:81 94.0% of households use electricity for lighting.:84 87.3% of households have piped water to the dwelling, while 12.0% have piped water through a communal tap.:85 94.9% of households have regular refuse collection service.:86 91.4% of households have a flush toilet or chemical toilet, while 4.5% still use a bucket toilet.:87 82.1% of households have a refrigerator, 87.3% have a television and 70.1% have a radio. Only 34.0% have a landline telephone, but 91.3% have a cellphone. 37.9% have a computer, and 49.3% have access to the Internet (either through a computer or a cellphone).:83

Population density in Cape Town
  3000 /km²

Geographical distribution of home languages in Cape Town (2011)
  Afrikaans
  English
  Xhosa
  No population or no language dominant
Economy
Main article: Economy of the Western Cape

Main entrance to the Cape Town International Convention Centre
Cape Town is the economic hub of the Western Cape province, South Africa’s second main economic centre and Africa’s third main economic hub city. It serves as the regional manufacturing centre in the Western Cape. In 2011 the city’s GDP was US$56.8 billion with a GDP per capita of US$15,721. In the five years preceding 2014 Cape Town GDP grew at an average of 3.7% a year. As a proportion of GDP, the agriculture and manufacturing sectors have declined whilst finance, business services, transport and logistics have grown reflecting the growth in specialised services sectors of the local economy. Fishing, clothing and textiles, wood product manufacturing, electronics, furniture, hospitality, finance and business services are industries in which Cape Town’s economy has the largest comparative advantage.

Between 2001 and 2010 the city’s Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality, improved by dropping from 0.59 in 2007 to 0.57 in 2010 only to increase to 0.58 by 2017.[69] The city has the lowest rate of inequality in South Africa.[70]

Cape Town has recently enjoyed a booming real estate and construction market, because of the 2010 FIFA World Cup as well as many people buying summer homes in the city or relocating there permanently. Cape Town hosted nine World Cup matches: Six first-round matches, one second-round match, one quarter final and one semifinal. The central business district is under an extensive urban renewal programme, with numerous new buildings and renovations taking place under the guidance of the Cape Town Partnership.[71]

Cape Town has four major commercial nodes, with Cape Town Central Business District containing the majority of job opportunities and office space. Century City, the Bellville/Tygervalley strip and Claremont commercial nodes are well established and contain many offices and corporate headquarters as well. Most companies headquartered in the city are insurance companies, retail groups, publishers, design houses, fashion designers, shipping companies, petrochemical companies, architects and advertising agencies.[72] The most notable companies headquartered in the city are food and fashion retailer Woolworths,[73] supermarket chain Pick n Pay Stores and Shoprite,[74] New Clicks Holdings Limited, fashion retailer Foschini Group,[75] internet service provider MWEB, Mediclinic International, eTV, multinational mass media giant Naspers, and financial services giant Sanlam.[76] Other notable companies include Belron (vehicle glass repair and replacement group operating worldwide), CapeRay (develops, manufactures and supplies medical imaging equipment for the diagnosis of breast cancer), Ceres Fruit Juices (produces fruit juice and other fruit based products), Coronation Fund Managers (third-party fund management company), ICS (was one of the largest meat processing and distribution companies in the world), Vida e Caffè (chain of coffee retailers), Capitec Bank (commercial bank in the Republic of South Africa). The city is a manufacturing base for several multinational companies including, Johnson & Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline, Levi Strauss & Co., Adidas, Bokomo Foods, Yoco and Nampak.[citation needed]

Most goods are handled through the Port of Cape Town or Cape Town International Airport. Most major shipbuilding companies have offices and manufacturing locations in Cape Town.[clarification needed] The province is also a centre of energy development for the country, with the existing Koeberg nuclear power station providing energy for the Western Cape’s needs.[78]

The Western Cape is an important tourist region in South Africa; the tourism industry accounts for 9.8% of the GDP of the province and employs 9.6% of the province’s workforce. In 2010, over 1.5 million international tourists visited the area.[79]

With the highest number of successful Information Technology companies in Africa, Cape Town is an important centre for the industry on the continent. Growing at an annual rate of 8.5% and an estimated worth of R77 billion in 2010, nationwide the IT industry in Cape Town is becoming increasingly important to the city’s economy.[80]

The city was recently named as the most entrepreneurial city in South Africa, with the percentage of Capetonians pursuing business opportunities almost three times higher than the national average. Those aged between 18 and 64 were 190% more likely to pursue new business, whilst in Johannesburg, the same demographic group was only 60% more likely than the national average to pursue a new business.[81] Cape Town has become the Silicon Valley of South Africa, hosting innovative tech startups such as Jumo, Yoco, Aerobotics, Luno and The Sun Exchange.[82]

Panorama of the Cape Town city centre
Tourism
Cape Town is not only a popular international tourist destination in South Africa, but Africa as a whole. This is due to its mild climate, natural setting, and well-developed infrastructure. The city has several well-known natural features that attract tourists, most notably Table Mountain,[83] which forms a large part of the Table Mountain National Park and is the back end of the City Bowl. Reaching the top of the mountain can be achieved either by hiking up, or by taking the Table Mountain Cableway. Cape Point is recognised as the dramatic headland at the end of the Cape Peninsula. Many tourists also drive along Chapman’s Peak Drive, a narrow road that links Noordhoek with Hout Bay, for the views of the Atlantic Ocean and nearby mountains. It is possible to either drive or hike up Signal Hill for closer views of the City Bowl and Table Mountain.

Clifton Beach is one of Cape Town’s most famous beaches and is a significant tourist destination in its own right.
Many tourists also visit Cape Town’s beaches, which are popular with local residents.[86] Due to the city’s unique geography, it is possible to visit several different beaches in the same day, each with a different setting and atmosphere. Though the Cape’s water ranges from cold to mild, the difference between the two sides of the city is dramatic. While the Atlantic Seaboard averages annual water temperatures barely above that of coastal California around 13 °C (55 °F), the False Bay coast is much warmer, averaging between 16 and 17 °C (61 and 63 °F) annually. This is similar to

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Nearby Suburbs Of Cape Town

List of nearest suburbs within 30 km of the central business district (CBD) of Cape Town

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